which of the following is a measure of the degree of industry concentration

Several methods are used to measure the degree of industry concentration. One such method is the Herfindahl-Hirschman index. This index measures the concentration of industries by taking into account the number of firms that are in the industry.


Using a concentration ratio to measure the competitiveness of an industry is a popular method. Concentration is not only a good indicator of how competitive a market is, but it can also help business strategists to determine pricing for products and services, and to formulate strategic plans. However, it is important to understand that the concentration ratio is not the only measure of competitiveness and does not account for all firms.

The Herfindahl-Hirschman index, or H, is another popular measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the percentage share of each firm in an industry.

Concentration indexes are calculated from domestic manufacturing data. They conceal the identities of the industry members. It is important to ensure that the relationship between the measures is robust. In order to get an accurate answer, policy makers should use a rigorous approach.

Concentration ratios are easy to understand. A concentration ratio can be calculated from the monetary value of the sales of each firm in a market. This is convenient for determining the price of a good or service. However, it is not an accurate measure of market power. If there were significant changes to the market share of firms, the concentration ratio would not change.

A concentration ratio is also an indicator of efficiency. In industries where the firms have significant costs advantages over smaller firms, it is often more efficient to produce goods on a large scale. These costs advantages allow companies to cut costs as output increases.

Concentration is also important to government agencies. For example, the U.S. Department of Justice has guidelines for mergers and acquisitions in industries. These guidelines include a concentration ratio of five firms. This means that the five largest firms have a combined market share of at least 60 percent of the total market sales.

Concentration measures are not the only way to measure the competitiveness of an industry. Some economists have also found a link between concentration and higher prices. However, this link is generally weak. Concentration also makes for a more competitive market, as firms have more incentive to improve their products and services to gain a competitive edge.


CR4 is a measure of industry concentration, and it can be very useful for business strategy and strategic planning. The measure indicates the extent of competition in the industry, which can be important in setting pricing for products or services. It can also tell you whether mergers in the industry are likely to lead to market monopoly or oligopoly.

This concentration index was devised in 1945 by two economists, Albert O. Hirschman and Maurizio Naldi. The index is the square of the percentage market share of each firm in an industry. Typically, the index would be about three thousand in a five-firm market. It is commonly abbreviated as HHI. It was used in many industries, including newspapers, books, civil aviation, and food processing.

In general, a concentration ratio takes values between zero and one. Concentration in an industry is considered to be high if the ratio is near 100%. High concentration also implies monopolistic competition, which is undesirable. Unlike concentration ratios, CR4 does not measure the market size of all firms in an industry, but only the four largest firms.

The concentration index is often used in conjunction with other market-share indicators such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the concentration ratio. The concentration ratio indicates how many firms are involved in the production of goods and services in an industry. It is also used to gauge how much price sensitivity there is in a market.

The concentration ratio is not a perfect measure of market concentration. Although it is often used as a comparison tool, it does not necessarily represent the true state of competition in the market. This is because there are many different types of markets. They can be national, local, or global in nature. In addition, it is not possible to include all firms in an industry in a concentration ratio.

The Herfindahl-Hirschman index is the concentration index of choice, and it is the most well-known concentration indicator. It was developed by two economists, who studied the relationship between Gini coefficients and market concentration. The index was first proposed in 1945. It has since been criticized for being overly complex and inaccurate. However, it has been used in many industries, including newspapers, books, radio, telecommunications, and the food processing industry.


CR5 is a measure of industry concentration. It is calculated by summing the market share of the five largest firms in an industry.

CR5 is a widely used measure of concentration. Concentration ratios are used to determine the competitiveness of an industry. Concentration is a manifestation of economies of scale. In a highly concentrated market, the threat of competition can keep prices down. It can also boost the growth of externally dependent industries.

CR5 is also called Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). It was created by Orris C. Hirschman in 1945. The index is calculated by summing squared market shares of each firm in an industry.

Herfindahl-Hirschman index has fairly high correlation to concentration ratio. Concentration ratios range from 0% to 100%. When concentration ratio is near 100%, it implies monopoly. When concentration ratio is less than 100%, it suggests perfect competition.

There are other measures of market structure. These include the Herfindahl-Hirschman, Boon, and Lerner Indexes. The Panzar-Rosse model is also used in the study. Although it is non-structural, it has several theoretical and econometric drawbacks.

The basic model identifies the overall effect of competition and concentration on industrial growth. It decomposes the effect at the country level. It also includes two interaction terms. However, there is little evidence on the banking structure of an industry.

Concentration indices are useful for studying concerns regarding the dominant position creation of a firm. CR4 and CR8 are two popular measures of concentration. CR4 measures the market share of the four largest firms in an industry. It is not a comprehensive measure of market structure. However, it has been used in a wide variety of contexts. It has been used in media, telecommunications, civil aviation, and food processing industries.

Concentration indices also allow researchers to examine the relationship between concentration and competition. Using the structure-conduct-performance (SC) paradigm, they show how concentration affects competition. In addition, they demonstrate the effects of concentration on industrial growth.

Concentration is also used as a means of examining the effects of economies of scale. Industries that produce similar products and services are highly concentrated. However, industries also vary in their use of specialized labor.

Herfindahl-Hirschman Index

Typically, the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is used by regulators to determine the impact of mergers on competition. In general, a higher HHI score indicates an increase in market power. However, a lower HHI score may indicate the presence of less competitive firms.

A lower Herfindahl-Hirschman index score means that a firm has less market share, and that there is a higher concentration of firms within the industry. A higher HHI score means that a firm has more market share, and that there is less concentration of firms within the industry. In some markets, HHI can increase by up to 1,000 points.

This measure is useful in evaluating mergers, especially when there are significant changes in market share. It is also used by antitrust authorities to determine the effect of mergers on competition. When a merger raises HHI by more than 200 points, the transaction is likely to be challenged on antitrust grounds.

An example of the use of the HHI in evaluating mergers is in the financial services industry. In this industry, there is a single firm that has 90 percent of all checking accounts, and other firms have less than 10 percent of the market share. A merger between these firms would result in the HHI jumping by 0.162. However, the merger would not violate EU merger law.

There are two main factors that determine how highly concentrated an industry is. The first factor is how many firms are in the industry. The second factor is the size of the market. A small market indicates a competitive industry. In a highly competitive industry, there are fewer firms that have a large market share. This makes the industry more prone to monopoly. In contrast, a market with three firms is less competitive.

When the HHI is above a certain threshold, it indicates that an industry is highly concentrated. This is the case in the U.S. automaker industry, where Ford holds a dominant position in South Africa. The merger of Sprint and T-Mobile increased the HHI value for the entire country.

An example of a less concentrated industry would be the health care industry. In this industry, there are a number of firms with less than 10 percent of the market share, which means that there is a greater degree of competition. The health care industry may be considered non-monopolistic, as a firm that has less than 10 percent market share could hold a dominant position in a particular geographic area.

Chelsea Glover