which of the following is a measure of the degree of industry concentration

The degrees of industry concentration vary greatly among STEM occupations. This is due to a number of reasons including a variety of factors such as the economy of scale and the presence of CRms, as well as differences in the skills and experience required to perform each occupation.


The CK(Pn) measure of industry concentration is an empirically verified function of market size. It is an illuminating statistical measure of the power of competition and the size of the market. Moreover, it is the measure of a market’s power to monopolize.

Although there is no universally accepted measure of industrial concentration, a number of indexes are available. They are usually based on domestic manufacturing data. Generally, they are not able to provide a comprehensive view of the overall production of a country.

For example, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index is a commonly used market concentration indicator. It is a function of the squared market shares of all firms in an industry. Unlike CK, however, the HHI lacks the value-validity property. Hence, it may be a tad misleading to compare it with other concentration indexes.

A more useful concentration index would be one that could be applied to a wider variety of industries. One example is the cut and sew apparel manufacturing industry. Another is the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

Concentration is defined as a market phenomenon where a small number of firms dominates the production of a particular product or service. As a result, profits are higher in such industries. Some economists have pointed to a link between concentration and higher prices. However, this correlation is typically small.

A new concentration index, CK, is proposed. Compared with the HHI, the CK has several interesting characteristics. Most notably, it is a function of market share. Furthermore, it is able to provide more meaningful interpretations and comparisons with other indices. In addition, it is an easy to compute statistic.

Overall, CK is a more robust measure of industry concentration than the HHI. Nevertheless, it is a work in progress.


CRM, or Customer Relationship Management, is a set of tools that companies use to enhance customer relationships. These tools gather data across multiple touchpoints, which can include websites, social media, and email campaigns. This enables firms to provide better service and improve products and services.

A CRM system provides a single source of truth for all customer information. By gathering data from multiple sources, companies can increase the efficiency and profitability of their sales and service departments.

Sales teams can use a CRM to better track customer leads, identify potential buyers, and prioritize outreach. Customer service personnel can also use the system to manage contacts and develop reports.

A CRM also provides insights for marketing campaigns. It can create personalized marketing messages for individual customers. Companies can customize products to retain and grow their customer base.

Having an efficient CRM is vital for businesses that want to maintain a competitive edge. The software can provide detailed information about a customer’s purchase history.

In addition, CRM systems can also integrate with other business intelligence and marketing tools. Some of the most popular CRM providers are Salesforce, HubSpot, and Zendesk. They often charge users a monthly or yearly subscription.

Depending on a business’s needs, companies may opt for on-premises or cloud-based solutions. Cloud-based options are more convenient and easier to deploy. But they can also be more expensive than on-premises systems.

To achieve maximum ROI, make sure to select a CRM provider with robust sales, marketing, and project management capabilities. Most cloud-based CRM vendors charge users on a subscription basis.

Customer satisfaction is a key factor in a firm’s economic performance. Keeping a customer’s satisfaction high reduces the likelihood of a customer defecting.


Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is an important measure of industry concentration. This measure of market competition is used by regulatory bodies as well as industry analysts. It is calculated by adding the squares of each firms market share. The index is usually compiled from the shipments of the top fifty companies in the industry.

HHI can range from close to zero to over ten thousand points. This indicator is the best measure of market competition and can be used to determine whether or not an industry is monopolistic. However, this measure is not a perfect representation of the competition in a particular industry.

As an example, consider the cigarette manufacturing industry in the United States. In 1997, the four largest firms accounted for 89 percent of all shipments. A monopoly is a result of a reduction in competition. If there are two companies with the same market share, they are competing. They are unlikely to have the same amount of power in the market.

Another measure of concentration is the CR1 or concentration ratio. Basically, the concentration ratio is a comparison of the relative market shares of the top firms in the industry. Concentration ratios are less accurate as an initial measurement of the impact of mergers.

One of the easiest and most reliable ways to determine whether an industry is monopolistic is by using the Herfindahl-Hirschman index. A HHI of over ten thousand points is a good indication of a market monopoly.

While it is not the only measure of industry concentration, it is one of the most popular. In addition to being a dependable measure of competition, the Herfindahl-Hirschman indicator is also useful when determining whether or not an industry is a winner or a loser.

Economies of scale favor large-scale production over small-scale production

Economies of scale are cost advantages that companies reap when production becomes more efficient. Economies of scale are achieved by spreading a company’s fixed and variable costs over a larger number of goods, and by utilizing technologies that increase the efficiency of production.

Economies of scale can be achieved through internal and external sources. Internal economies of scale are the result of internal changes made by the management and employees of a firm. External economies of scale are based on factors that affect the entire industry.

In order to achieve these economies, companies can increase production, reorganize resources, and use joint research initiatives. Companies can also negotiate volume discounts, buy products in bulk, and hire better skilled managers.

The most important part of implementing an economy of scale is to determine the best strategy for your particular business. It is important to keep in mind that you will have to balance the benefits of increased output with the cost savings.

Economies of scale are usually accompanied by lower costs per unit of output. These can be achieved by increasing the quantity of production, spreading costs over a larger production run, and employing technological advances that reduce labor and setup costs. A company’s costs can also be reduced through tax reductions, subsidies, and other forms of support.

An economy of scale is a good indicator of a company’s competitive position. Increasing production while reducing costs can allow a company to grow while maintaining competitive pricing.

Economies of scale can be found at any stage of the production process. For example, manufacturing can be more effective with the help of robots and flexible technology. Other examples include marketing and advertising. Investing in new and improved software can lower the per-unit cost of your product, as can a more highly-skilled labor pool.

STEM occupations vary greatly in degrees of industry concentration

In the United States, STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) occupations are expected to grow 14% in the next decade. There is a large demand for these skills and the job outlook is strong for both graduates and employers.

Many states offer financial incentives to individuals who attain a STEM degree. These include:

Studies have shown that immigrants are more likely to work in STEM occupations than the native-born population. They are also less likely to be underemployed. Moreover, employers have greater access to this skilled workforce. The demand for these skills is growing as the economy becomes more competitive and as technological advancements become more important.

Immigrants are a major source of STEM-educated labour in both the United States and Canada. The economic advantages they enjoy are reflected in the number of STEM jobs they fill and the earnings they earn.

Adult immigrants with a bachelor’s degree were twice as likely to have studied STEM fields compared to the native-born population. Software developers lead the way for STEM employment for those with a bachelor’s degree. Other major players include physicians, pharmacists, and postsecondary teachers in health specialties.

The proportion of immigrants working in STEM occupations is significantly higher in the United States than in Canada. Over the last decade, immigrants have held over 30% of all STEM jobs in the U.S. and over 42% in Canada.

A study of the provincial nominee program showed that the annual earnings of engineers in this program were low. However, those who entered the CEC had the highest earnings and the best outcomes. This is mainly because the provincial nominee program uses a points-based system for economic immigrants.

Chelsea Glover