which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of scores

There are a number of ways to measure the variation of a set of data. These measures include Percentile, Range, Kurtosis, and Coefficient of Variation. What is the difference between these different measures?

Coefficient of variation

The coefficient of variation is a useful measure of variability, especially when it is used to compare two data sets. Using this formula, investors can make an educated decision about their investments.

A low CV means that there is less variation in a data set. This can be important for investors looking to reduce risk.

A higher CV indicates that there is more variability in a data set. For example, if company B has a lower CV, their weekly sales are more predictable than company A. However, this doesn’t mean that the overall standard deviation is small.

To calculate the co-efficient of variation, you need to know what the standard deviation is. You can do this using an Excel formula. It may sound complex, but it can be quite simple.

Generally, the co-efficient of variation is a ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. Usually, this is presented in percentages. When this ratio is expressed in a graphical format, the results are easy to interpret.

When comparing data sets, the co-efficient of variation can be a useful indicator of economic inequality. If you own shares in Mutual Fund A, you can tell that they have a lower CV than Mutual Fund B. That means they are trading off the risk of a potentially volatile investment against a higher return.

There are other ways to measure the co-efficient of variation. This can be a useful way to audit the precision of a process or a tool. In the finance industry, it can help to evaluate the risk-reward trade off. Investors can use it to select a suitable ETF.

A higher co-efficient of variation is also a good indicator of how much variation there is in a data set. For instance, if there are large differences between the mean and standard deviation of two data sets, the co-efficient of variation may prove to be a useful way to gauge whether the risk of investing in a particular company or product is worth it.


Range is a summary measure that describes how widely spread the data values in a set are. It is useful in the context of critical thresholds. In general, a smaller range will indicate less variability.

To calculate the range, subtract the smallest number from the largest one. For example, if the smallest value in the set is 11, and the largest value is 10: then the range is 11 – 1. This is not as precise as the other measures, but it tells a general idea of the widest spread of the data values.

Another measure is standard deviation. Standard deviation is a more accurate representation of the overall degree of dispersion in a data set. The standard deviation is the sum of squared deviations from the mean.

The range is an easy way to measure the degree of variation in a data set. However, it is more useful to measure the minimum and maximum values. These are more informative than the range.

An interquartile range is also a measure of variation. This measure indicates the location of the middle 50% of the data set. Generally, the IQR is paired with the median to describe the distribution of a given set of data.

Another measure of variation is the coefficient of variation. This is the relative distribution of the data points around a central value. A high co-efficient means that the dispersion of data points around the mean is greater than the mean.

There are a variety of other measures of variability. The most common are standard deviation, variance, and range. Each one provides a different view of how spread out the data is.

Variance is an important measure of variability. It is the difference between the amount of variation in two samples. As with range, the larger the variance, the more variability in the sample.


Kurtosis is a statistical measurement that indicates the extent to which the probability distribution of a random variable has a peak. In other words, it is a measure of how much tails the data distribution has, and whether or not it resembles a normal bell-shaped curve. The kurtosis of the distribution may vary depending on the sample size of the data.

Kurtosis is often used to quantify how non-Gaussian a distribution is. It also provides a measure of how well a set of data conforms to normality assumptions. When a distribution has excessive kurtosis, the tails tend to extend beyond the normal bell-shaped curve. This is why it is sometimes referred to as excess kurtosis.

Kurtosis is measured in three different types: leptokurtic, mesokurtic and platykurtic. Leptokurtic is the distribution that has the highest kurtosis, while mesokurtic and platykurtic are the distributions that have less kurtosis.

Leptokurtic distributions are often characterized by a high peak and fatter tails than the normal distribution. Mesokurtic and platykurtic distributions have moderate breadth and kurtosis. Normally, a distribution’s kurtosis is close to zero.

In a normal distribution, the data is symmetrically distributed around the mean. Typically, the majority of the values of a set are within three standard deviations of the mean. However, this does not necessarily imply that the distribution is normal. A large kurtosis indicates that more values are located in the tails than in the normal distribution.

Several sources mistakenly use the term “kurtosis” to refer to a distribution’s flatness. This is incorrect. Instead, kurtosis is a measure of how many tails the distribution has compared to the average. If the distribution has too many tails, the kurtosis is negative. Similarly, if the distribution has a lot of tails, the kurtosis will be positive.


Leptokurtic distribution is a type of distribution with more outliers than the normal distribution. This type of distribution is usually associated with positive excess kurtosis.

Kurtosis is a measure of how heavily the tails of the distribution are tailed. It also refers to the degree of symmetry of the data distribution. For instance, a distribution with more outliers will have a thicker peak, while a distribution with less outliers will have a thinner peak. In general, kurtosis is a good indicator of whether the distribution is normal or not.

There are three types of kurtosis. These are leptokurtic, mesokurtic, and platykurtic. Mesokurtic distributions have zero kurtosis, while leptokurtic and platykurtic distributions have positive kurtosis.

When a distribution has a kurtosis value of 0 to 3 it is called a mesokurtic distribution. A distribution with a kurtosis value of 3 to 8 is called a leptokurtic. Platykurtic distributions have a kurtosis value of less than 0. They have a rounded curve, lower peak, and fewer values in the short tails.

The kurtosis of a distribution can be determined using the EXCEL function KURT. The KURT function calculates a population’s kurtois-3. Using this information, you can determine if the distribution is mesokurtic or leptokurtic.

Kurtosis is a useful measure of tailedness and can be used to make statistical models. It is a relatively simple measurement, and can be easily found. However, it is also a controversial measure. Some argue that it is not accurate. Others claim that it is very useful for determining the tailedness of a distribution.

To determine the kurtosis of a distribution, you first need to determine the distribution’s skewness. Skewness is a measure of how well the indicators follow normality assumptions. If most of the scores are below the mean, the curve will be negatively skewed. On the other hand, a positively skewed curve will show most of the scores above the mean.


Percentiles are a useful metric when you want to know how many data points fall within a range. They are useful in many types of data science projects. For instance, they are particularly useful when you have outliers in your data. You can use percentiles to compare different datasets, such as the average, mean and standard deviation.

The most common combination of data measures is the mean and the standard deviation. Those statistics divide the data into groups, so it’s easy to know where each group falls in relation to the average. These statistics can also be supplemented with other percentile-based ranges.

In general, the best way to determine how widely spread a set of data is is to measure its range. This is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a data set. A larger set of numbers is more likely to contain extreme values.

Another measure of variability is the median. This is the point in the distribution where half of the samples’ values fall. It is also the halfway mark. It is commonly used in conjunction with the other aforementioned measures.

There are several other measures of variation, though. They include the range, the standard deviation and the mean. Using all three, you can make an educated guess about how widely the set of data is distributed.

However, these measures are not complete measures. A better measure is the central tendency. Central tendency is a measure of the typical value of a given distribution. Although it does not give you as much information as the other three, it is still a useful statistic.

Using the mean and the standard deviation, you can calculate the co-efficient of variation. This tells you the size of the standard deviation in relation to the mean. Increasing the co-efficient of variation indicates that the group of data points is more variable.

Chelsea Glover