Using the following terms, which of the following implies the least degree of confidence in an economic generalization? The Fallacy of Omission, Composition, Extension, Consistency, and Uniformity.
1. Fallacy of composition
Basically, the fallacy of composition is a kind of hasty generalization. It involves making an inference from a part of an economic system. This is the opposite of the fallacy of division, which is an inference from a whole.
The fallacy of composition claims that what is true for one person must be true for the group as a whole. However, this is not always true.
For example, what works for David may not work for the whole nation. A good example of this is the fallacy of the paradox of thrift. This is the opposite of the fallacy that says that what works for one country will work for all countries together.
This fallacy is used when people make the mistake of treating abstract terms as concrete. For example, when making a restaurant decision, people compare the marginal costs and benefits of a variety of choices. However, this comparison is usually made through trial and error.
A related fallacy is the fallacy of ambiguity. This is when people make a mistake by assuming that something is correct simply because most people agree with it.
Another fallacy is the fallacy of relevance. This is when people make the mistake of assuming that what is true for one person is true for the whole. This can apply to individuals, groups, or atoms.
Another type of fallacy is the fallacy of the black-white problem. This is the mistaken assumption that things can only be black or white. This can be applied to things such as physics and chemistry.
2. Fallacy of extension
Defining fallacies can be an ongoing debate. Some argue that all fallacies fall into one category, while others believe that all fallacies are unique and that the standard formal logic used to understand them is inadequate. In order to understand fallacies, it is necessary to take a multi-logical approach.
The earliest fallacies can be traced back to the classical logical puzzles and metaphysical questions of Aristotle. These fallacies can be seen as mistakes in question-dialogues. Eventually, these fallacies were grouped under the heading of “informal fallacies”.
The post-Lockean tradition of ad-fallacies has been traced to the late 19th century and to the early part of the twentieth century. This tradition is characterized by a more socially or politically relevant concern. Despite their focus on popular concern, many of these fallacies are not simple logical failures.
The slippery slope argument is one example. The fallacy involves making a series of incompatible claims in order to make the second claim more likely. However, the argument is weak in the second causal claim and may be weaker in the third.
Another example is the begging the question fallacy. In this fallacy, the arguer asks for the proposition to be proven, but then refuses to actually prove it. In order to avoid the fallacy, the arguer must intermix the particular and universal propositions in a way that makes it impossible for the opponent to prove that the proposition is false.
3. Fallacy of omission
During the last couple of centuries, fallacies have received renewed interest, mainly from psychology, communication studies, artificial intelligence, and philosophy. However, they are not generally well understood. They are better understood as faults of explanation.
A fallacy of omission is the omission of an antecedent from a conditional. This antecedent is the if-then statement. A fallacy of omission occurs when a reasoner claims that something is a necessary part of a conditional without any evidence or antecedent.
The naturalistic fallacy is a fallacy that applies to arguments from facts to conclusions. It is often used to make the case that one thing is more likely to happen than another.
The argumentation fallacy is another fallacy that is used to attack a claim. It includes the Lying, Appeal to Authority, Suppressed Evidence, and False Equivalence fallacies.
The Black-White fallacy is another fallacy that limits choices to black and white. For example, if you are indecisive about which type of beer you want to drink, you can only choose one from two different brands.
Another fallacy is the prediction fallacy. It is when people predict something is going to happen before it happens. This fallacy can be particularly dangerous during an atmosphere of potential war. Especially when you are uncertain of the enemy’s motives.
A polling fallacy is a type of fallacy that asks a question in a way that presumes the answer. It is usually used in push polls, when the goal is to push information onto respondents.