which of the following countries possesses a high degree of assertiveness

In a global business environment, differences in cultural beliefs and expectations can pose challenges. Understanding these differences can help managers manage their international teams effectively and avoid misunderstandings.

Assertiveness is a leadership style that involves direct communication and uncompromising honesty in interpersonal relationships. It can be difficult to develop this style, as it often requires a great deal of confidence in one’s own abilities.

1. China

China’s high degree of assertiveness can be explained by a number of factors, including leaders’ perception of great power status (He & Feng, 2012; Li, 2016), reaction to provocation from other claimant states and third parties, and domestic pressure.

However, the most important factor underlying China’s increasingly assertive foreign policy behavior in East Asia is a change in the distribution of relative capabilities between Beijing and its neighbouring states. This has shifted both the systemic dynamics and the pressures to manoeuvre, especially as Beijing is now facing new room to reassess its territorial claims in East Asia.

One of the main drivers of Chinese leadership’s reassessment of its territorial claims in East Asia has been a growing nationalist demand in the Chinese society, fuelled by the rise in China’s economic and military capabilities relative to the U.S. This nationalist demand puts pressure on the leadership when it negotiates with neighbouring states or is involved in conflicts.

In order to reassure the Chinese public, the leadership has to show that it is not weak and has not caved into external demands. As a result, this enables a more hawkish and aggressive foreign policy behaviour in East Asia.

Another significant factor influencing the CCP’s foreign policy is the heightened concern of the leadership over regime security, which has further narrowed Beijing’s room to manoeuvre. This concern has also influenced the CCP’s domestic policies, allowing it to co-opt and suppress new groups and tendencies in the Chinese society.

The escalation of maritime territorial disputes in the South China Sea has further intensified tensions between China and its neighbors. This situation has also created a challenge to the CCP’s capacity to rule. As a result, the CCP has to constantly reassess its strategies and tactics to keep the country’s legitimate interests on top and maintain its legitimacy.

2. Japan

Japan has a long history of aggressive expansion and military strength. It was one of the major players in the Pacific War, a four-year conflict that raged across the Pacific Ocean, East Asia and Southeast Asia during World War II.

Assertiveness is one of the most important traits that can help people thrive in the global business environment. It is also a skill that many professional Japanese and non-Japanese alike must develop in order to cope with the increasing demands of international business.

Japanese social culture is highly preoccupied with status and rank, and this often translates into a high degree of deference toward the upper echelons of society. This can be seen in the etiquette that is prescribed by traditional etiquette books for various social occasions, as well as the way in which people speak to each other.

Another important aspect of Japanese culture is that everyone is born equal and everyone has the potential to achieve success if they work hard enough. This is a key component of the Japanese education system and is an underlying factor in the way that professional Japanese and non-Japanese professionals see themselves.

In fact, a significant number of non-Japanese professionals working in multinational companies will be moving to Japan, as this is an opportunity for them to learn how to deal with the challenges and opportunities that the country’s changing business culture presents.

While a strong cultural preference for conformity might make it difficult for people to take on a more assertive role, the ability to mute assertiveness is becoming increasingly important in the global business environment. This is a trend that can be observed in Japan, as well as other countries around the world.

3. Korea

The Republic of Korea (ROK), a democracy, has largely respected civil, political, economic and social rights but significant human rights concerns remain. In addition to discrimination against women, lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender people, the government maintains draconian criminal defamation laws and sweeping intelligence and national security laws that chill speech critical of the government and corporations.

The Korean Peninsula has remained relatively peaceful since an armistice was signed in 1953, although North Korea continues to conduct nuclear tests and military exercises that regularly flare up into international conflict. The ROK has also maintained important US military, economic and political support.

In recent years, tensions between South Korea and North Korea have cooled. In April 2018, President Moon Jae-in and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un agreed to end hostile actions and work toward reducing nuclear arms on the peninsula.

For international businesses looking to enter the Korean market, it is essential to understand the unique nature of Korean consumers and offer goods and services tailored to their needs. Successful brands in Korea are able to provide unique products at competitive prices, full localization and satisfactory customer service.

Consumers in Korea are very demanding and they expect quality products with good price-performance ratio. As such, companies that do not have the ability to deliver a quality product to their customers in a timely manner will struggle in this market.

Another reason why many companies have a hard time in this market is that they often fail to understand the culture of Koreans and their passion for goods and services that are tailor-made to satisfy their desires. As a result, they often do not have enough of an appetite for the kind of innovative and disruptive ideas that would help them stand out in the marketplace.

4. India

Indian society is a complex and incredibly diverse place. It is characterized by immense regional, economic, social and gender differences. It is also characterized by vast variations in religious belief, class structure, caste groupings and family and kinship systems.

Moreover, India has a large and prosperous middle class, which is increasingly dictating its political and economic future. This middle class is mobile, consumer-oriented, and forward-looking. It is made up of farmers, white-collar workers, professionals and military personnel. They are enjoying decent homes, reasonable incomes and well-educated children.

However, this prosperity is rooted in a strong social order based on widely accepted cultural themes that promote harmonious relations between people with divergent interests. It also encourages the allocation of different tasks to those with various skills and knowledge, and it emphasizes doing what is morally right in the eyes of the community.

These traits are not exclusive to India; many nations in Asia and the world face similar challenges of societal complexity. But India has an exceptional capacity for creating manageable order from complexity, bringing together wide-spread disparate groups in structured efforts to benefit the wider society and encouraging harmony among those with divergent interests.

This is largely due to the strength of its culture, which incorporates the best elements of its ethnic, linguistic, regional, economic, religious, and class traditions. It is also a highly hierarchical society, where all things, people and social groups are ranked according to their essential qualities.

This societal hierarchy is evident across India’s vast regions and in its extensive divisions between Hindu and Muslim communities, north and south India, urban and rural areas, and within families and kinship groups. It is a social order that is difficult to change, but which can be enhanced by the adoption of new ideas and values, including those in the spheres of economics and science, and by the efforts of the growing women’s movement.

5. Pakistan

Pakistan, a large country with a diverse ethnic and linguistic mix, has been grappling with its political future since its inception. It has struggled with the challenges of regional tensions, full-scale wars with India and an exposed northwestern frontier. The nation has also experienced a series of economic and social crises.

The country’s diverse population has led to a range of cultural and religious differences, especially when it comes to social and cultural norms. This diversity has influenced its political process.

One example of this is the family structure. In Pakistan, families play a key role in social and economic life. The family often supports the old; cares for widows, never-married adults and disabled people; helps during periods of unemployment; and provides a sense of security and belonging.

Another way in which the family shapes Pakistani culture is through their business practices. It is common for Pakistanis to start a business with their family members and continue it generationally. They believe that this will ensure loyalty and trust from their relatives.

This belief is based on the principle of nepotism, in which relatives with similar jobs are encouraged to hire each other for work. Nepotism is a positive aspect of the Pakistani culture because it ensures that the company will be run by people with high levels of competence and integrity.

This is a good trait to have in any workplace because it can help ensure that employees will be loyal to the organization and the company, and will not be inclined to do unauthorized work for competitors. It is also a great advantage in the business world because it can make it easier to attract clients and investors.

Chelsea Glover