Despite this apparent disparity, there are very few significant race-based differences in factors associated with degree completion. However, racial disparities were found with regard to size and number of institutions. In addition, the relationship between institutional commitment and satisfaction was stronger in white men than in white women, and the magnitude of the association was larger for men than for women. In addition, social and academic integration were both stronger predictors of degree attainment for blacks and whites, but not for Asians and Hispanics.
While there is considerable variation in the prestige of college degrees among Asian Americans, results show that Chinese Americans tend to complete their degrees at more prestigious institutions. However, they also tend to prioritize liberal arts degrees before entering professional programs. This difference between White and Asian American college degree prestige may be explained by a combination of factors.
The high educational attainment of Asian American populations is consistent with prior research, and Asians tend to attend higher-quality institutions than their White counterparts. In fact, Asian Americans are more likely to attend elite institutions than most other ethnic groups. Moreover, Asian American children tend to have comparable incomes as Whites, although the children of immigrants may earn slightly less. Future research should examine whether the prestige of college affects income differences across Asian American ethnic groups.
Despite these findings, the results of the study contradict traditional sociological theories about educational attainment. While economic status remains the strongest predictor of educational success, many Asians from disadvantaged backgrounds are able to attain bachelor’s and graduate degrees. The results suggest that the high educational mobility of Asian immigrants may be the result of family attitudes about the importance of higher education.
Race and ethnicity play an important role in determining college degree completion. However, other factors such as institutional characteristics and the climate of campus settings are also important in explaining racial completion disparities. This research highlights the complexities of race and college degree completion. In addition, it also illustrates the role of financial aid and socioeconomic status in determining college degree completion.
The completion rate of white and Asian students was higher than that of black and Hispanic students. White and Asian students were the only groups with higher completion rates. The black and Hispanic completion rates were much lower. However, in general, the white and Asian completion rates were nearly equal, while the black and Hispanic completion rates were similar.
White and Asian college degree completion rates differ between traditional-age and adult learners, with traditional-age students showing higher completion rates. While Black and Hispanic students were significantly less likely to complete their degree, white students tended to be more likely to stay enrolled over six years.
Regardless of race, Hispanic college degree completion rates are nearly identical to the completion rates of white and black students. These rates are based on their starting institutions. Asian students are the next lowest group at completion rates of 38 percent. Overall, Hispanics and whites are equal.
Despite these similarities, the race-related differences between White and Black participants in the NLSY79 study remained. However, the Black-Hispanic gap remained a bit larger. Although the gap had partially closed by the time the survey was conducted, White people were slightly more likely to complete a Bachelor’s degree than Hispanic students.
The gaps between white and black college degree completion rates have narrowed. However, they still remain significant. White students complete more college degrees than Hispanic students. The two-year completion rate gap was 17.5 percent between Hispanic students and white students. Hispanic college degree completion rates were nearly eight percentage points higher than those of black and Asian students.
White and Asian college degree completion rates increased over the past decade. In fact, the attainment gap between white and Asian students decreased from 28 percentage points to twenty-two. In addition, the percentages of those with bachelor’s degrees increased from thirteen to twenty-three percent between 2010 and 2021. Furthermore, those with bachelor’s degrees were less likely to be foreign-born.
According to a recent report by the Community College Research Center at Columbia University, the percentage of black and Hispanic adults who complete a college degree lags behind that of whites by 15 percentage points. The report also shows that these groups rely less on online courses and libraries. Instead, they tend to use community centers and their religious institutions for learning.
For this reason, institutions need to develop an integrated approach to postsecondary attainment. In addition, adult learners typically have multiple priorities and responsibilities. For example, 62 percent of undergraduates work while in school, while nearly a quarter have children. This makes time to complete a degree an important consideration. Additionally, adult learners should be able to find an educational program that is affordable and flexible.
Despite the large gaps in completion rates, there are some significant trends that indicate that older students are more likely to complete a degree. As a result, black students were more likely to start in community colleges.
Federal data show that there are serious inequities in college degree completion rates among students of color. More blacks and Hispanics earn college degrees from for-profit institutions than from public or nonprofit institutions. And the students who do attend these institutions are significantly more likely to default on their student loans within 12 years. This lingering debt can make it difficult for students to pay their bills and save for retirement. This leaves a disproportionately large number of students with a degree from for-profit institutions and less economic opportunity than when they enrolled.
During the Great Recession, enrollment at for-profit colleges increased. This was partly due to the fact that unemployed people and recent graduates were choosing post-secondary education over the labor force. During that time, most new enrollees were people of color. In fact, black and Hispanic individuals were three times more likely to attend a for-profit college compared to white students. In contrast, public institutions enrolled nearly twice as many students of color as did for-profit institutions.
Despite these disparities, more research is needed to understand the specific reasons why students of color are discouraged from pursuing certain degrees. One possibility is that the cost of pursuing certain courses of study is higher than other types of study. In addition, advisers may discourage black students from choosing more difficult or expensive degrees. And there is also evidence that introductory classes are used to weed out weaker students.
Public four-year schools
A new report released by the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center details the relationship between race and college degree completion. The study analyzed data from students nationwide in fall 2010 who were enrolled in full or part-time programs or who transferred to another institution. The findings show that, overall, 54.8 percent of students completed their degrees within six years. However, these percentages are not equally distributed across ethnic groups.
The findings highlight a disturbing pattern. Black and Hispanic students are less likely than their white counterparts to complete a four-year degree. This disproportionately occurs in for-profit colleges, where the student-to-faculty ratio is higher than at public four-year institutions.
Despite these results, it is important to note that these findings are largely based on self-reported data from colleges and universities. As such, completion rates vary by institution and by race. However, public four-year institutions generally have higher completion rates than private four-year colleges.
Race and college degree completion rates show that Asian students achieve the highest degree completion rates. The lowest percentages were for Black students. In fact, black students were the least likely to graduate from a public four-year institution.
Students with some college but no degree
A new report from the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center shows that the number of individuals with some college but no degree is increasing. This group of learners makes up almost 36 million Americans. In addition, nearly one million former college students have gone back to school. Many of them are minorities.
This data is alarming, particularly when considering that Black women are disproportionately represented among students with some college but no degree. They make up 26% of the total, compared to 21 percent of White women. Meanwhile, the proportion of Black men with some college but no degree is nearly equal to that of their White counterparts. Part of the reason for this imbalance can be attributed to the rising cost of college, but it also points to a need for colleges to improve their services for African-American students.
Higher education in the United States has long been subject to inequities. Some institutions have more resources than others, and marginalized students should be able to access these elite institutions. In response to this problem, Eleanor Wiske Dillon and Jeffrey Andrew Smith developed an approach to determine whether a marginalized student has access to a prestigious college or university.