While gaps between races are often large, the ones between whites and Hispanics tend to narrow over time. Hispanics, on the other hand, are more likely to complete a college degree than whites, and the gap between their completion rates is smaller than that of white students. The reasons for the increasing disparity between races in college degree completion rates are unclear, but the article suggests that for-profit colleges may be a contributing factor.
Hispanic women more likely than white men to earn a degree or certificate
The number of Hispanic women earning a degree or certificate in engineering is higher than that of their white counterparts. But there are still economic barriers to college attendance. As a result, the number of Hispanic women earning an engineering degree is still below the number of Hispanic men. A study of undergraduate degrees by Hispanic students in the United States found that only 65 Hispanic women earn an education bachelor’s degree for every 1,000 white male graduates.
Despite this disparity, Hispanic women are still more likely than their white male counterparts to complete a four-year degree. Despite this, nearly half of Hispanic college students attend community colleges or public two-year schools. By contrast, the share of white men who attend community college is 30%.
Another difference between white men and Hispanic women is in the rate of nonmarital childbearing. While women who are unmarried are more likely to have children, those who have not completed high school were more likely to have children outside of marriage. For example, in 2016, 59 percent of births to unmarried white women were outside of marriage while only seven percent of births to women with a bachelor’s degree were outside of marriage.
The completion rate of Hispanic students varies widely by race and ethnicity. In general, white students and Asian students tend to complete their studies faster than their black counterparts. Meanwhile, black students tend to drop out more often than their white counterparts. Furthermore, black students are less likely to complete a degree or certificate than their white counterparts. These statistics include students who have dropped out after taking only part-time classes.
The gender gap between men and women is a stark one. White men earn bachelor’s degrees in engineering at six times the rate of Hispanic women. For black women, the rate is 11 times higher. And if the number of Hispanic students and white men were equal, the number of Hispanic graduates would be one million higher.
Mixed enrollment more common among Hispanics than exclusively full-time students
According to the Pew Hispanic Center, nearly nine-in-ten Latino young adults believe that a college education is essential for success, but only about half of them plan to complete college. That gap is primarily the result of financial pressure, according to the report.
The report found that the percentage of Hispanics who earned bachelor’s degrees increased over the last decade. However, the gap between Latino and White students narrowed between 2001 and 2021, with 19% earning bachelor’s degrees and 23% earning associate’s degrees. In addition, Latino students are more likely to be first-generation college students. Nearly half of them are completing their first college degree, compared to just 9% of Black and Native students.
One factor that may explain this disparity is the lack of guidance during high school. For young Latino students, the college selection and application processes can be overwhelming. They often do not have role models in college or mentors to guide them. Furthermore, the lack of counseling services in schools can further complicate the situation.
The study found that one-third of Latino public school students come from low-income families. Consequently, they are likely to attend schools lacking in resources. Furthermore, many of them are not aware of financial aid options. Only 44% of Latino parents know about the Pell Grant, which can help Latino students attend college. Moreover, Latino students are more likely to delay their degree completion due to other costs.
The study found that mixed enrollment was more prevalent among Hispanics than among exclusively full-time students. However, despite the disparity in enrollment rates, Hispanics continue to accumulate their education during follow-up years, compared to Blacks. These findings also show that mixed enrollment is associated with a lower completion rate in college.
While Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States, their college completion rate is among the lowest in the nation. While their high school graduation rate has improved in the past decade, only 15 percent of Latino adults hold a bachelor’s degree. By 2050, these numbers are projected to reach 30% of the total population. Therefore, Latinos’ educational achievement needs to be significantly improved.
Income gap bigger than racial gap
One of the most significant factors in income disparity is race. While there are some variations, the income gap is consistently larger for whites than for non-whites. For example, white men earn bachelor’s degrees in engineering at six times the rate of black women and eleven times the rate of Hispanic women.
Racial achievement gaps have been reducing in some states since the 1980s, but not all. For example, the white-black achievement gap is about a standard deviation larger in some states than in others. And while this may be partially because of socioeconomic differences, the racial achievement gap remains significant.
This gap is largely due to racial differences in SAT scores. Hispanic students in California have some of the lowest average scores in the country. On the other hand, white students in the state are at par with national averages.
Debt is also a major factor in the income gap, especially for Black students. Many families depend on student debt to finance a college degree, and this disproportionate burden of debt leads to worse outcomes. Racial disparities are so large that higher education reform proposals must address the dual burdens of debt and wealth.
The income gap is also much bigger than the racial gap when it comes to college completion. For example, a family with an income of $200,000 or less will have more difficulty affording college than a family with an income of $75,000 or less. Similarly, the share of white families in higher income groups is greater than the share of the overall population.
Even after completing college, Black students still have a hard time finding good jobs. The labor market is more discriminatory than the one for whites and is further compounded by the higher education cost. While a college degree is the ticket to a better future, it does not guarantee a better job. In fact, a 2011 study by Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the Workforce found that Black students have lower earnings than their White counterparts. The study also showed that Black students face significant disadvantages when applying for jobs, taking out loans, and determining repayment plans.
Racial equity in higher education requires equal access to programs of study. This is one way policymakers can take concrete steps to reduce the gaps. However, to fully understand the cause of this disparity, researchers must examine the nature of the problem.
For-profit colleges as source of racial gap
The National Student Clearinghouse Research Center has released a report that examines the race and ethnicity of college students in the United States. This report analyzes data from students who began postsecondary education in fall 2010 and completed their degrees within six years. The report found that completion rates varied greatly by race and ethnicity. The largest racial and ethnic disparity was found in the percentage of black and Hispanic students who dropped out of college after six years.
For-profit colleges have been identified as a cause of long-term racial disparities in college degree completion. In 2004, almost 60 percent of black students enrolled in for-profit colleges defaulted on their student loans. This was compared to 36 percent for white students. In addition, black students who did not complete their degrees were 70 percent more likely to default on their loans than white students. Furthermore, the six-year retention rate of students enrolled in for-profit colleges was only 26 percent.
The completion rates of white and Hispanic students were the highest across all institutions. However, black and Asian students finished less than half as many years. However, their overall completion rates were similar. In fact, white students completed their degrees at higher rates than Hispanic and black students.
Racial disparity in college degree completion remains persistent despite the fact that rates have been approaching parity in recent decades. In six years, 64% of white students completed a bachelor’s degree. By contrast, 40% of black and Latino students earned a bachelor’s degree.
The gap between white and black students’ college degree completion rates is much smaller than among those enrolled in traditional-age students. Hispanic students had a completion rate of 63.2 percent, while black students completed only 45.9%. Nevertheless, the racial gap was still 12.3 percent for both races.
Racial disparities in college degree completion are also linked to factors such as family income. Racial differences in college degree completion should be studied to see what factors affect the racial divide.